The organization can be seen as a structure. The aim of representing (make visible, formalize) the structure and to try to use this structure as a guide to organize activity is to maximize organizational welfare and individual goals.
The structure is a set of relationships that among agents who are involved in processes (who perform organizational tasks and duties). The organizational tasks are clustered into roles, which are clustered into areas/domains of activity (departments in traditional organizations). Relations of authority-responsibility are also called vertical relations, involved in hierarchies. In OVNs authority is based on reputation, which has dimensions of demonstrated knowledge and experience, commitment, etc. Authority is understood in context, for a limited time, as no permanent authority exists in OVNs. Relations between areas/domains of activity and xxx are called horizontal relations.
The structure also specifies division of work/labor and shows how different functions or activities are linked; to some extent it also shows the level of specialization of work activities. It also indicates the organizations authority structure and shows its reporting relationships.
Types of organization structures
- Divisional : general manager and divisional heads, assuming responsibility for strategic matters.
Organizational structure, information flows and feedback mechanisms
See information flow page
Type of networks
All organizations exhibit various interlaced networks (structures)
- Collaboration (encyclopedia, bookmarking and social curation, services, Ex. )
- Advice (discussions, forums, rivews, Ex. Quora)
- Friendship (Ex. Facebook)
These networks interact. For instance, centrality in an advice network increases power within the organisation (Krackhardt, 1990), and participation in a friendship network is an important source of influence in decision-making processes (Kildu!, 1990).
Interactions of agents
Principles of connectivity, asymmetry and social distance.
Features of formal structure
- Hierarchy (... status)
- Division of labor (units of specialization)
Hierarchy is the only alternative to exchange in the market (Williamson, 1995) Specialization vs integration. The more specialization between units the more integration is needed. In hierarchical organizations integration is done at the managerial level. In networks, integration is done … Division of labor can lead to monopolization of tasks.
Presence of professional groups can have leverage on the managerial layer in some hierarchical organizations. In open networks we also see technical people driving development and sometimes having overwhelming influence in the whole organization. The leverage comes from their import role in achieving the goals, and the scarcity of their skills. Redundancy is key to break their unhealthy overwhelming influence.
Beside the formal structure in an organization we have other parallel structures like social networks or relations, sometimes called informal structures. All structures operate, or have an impact on the functioning of an organization. Sometimes we emphasize on one structure and overlook a cause to a problem that can lie in another structure. For example, social relations can affect the execution of functions in a role. The distinction between formal and informal structure is perhaps based on our emphasis, what we consider important for surface, make visible, explicit, codify, measure, … All structures are important. Today we have tools to surface then all.
Develop more on organizational structural features as geographical location, hierarchical position and specialization in relation to social interaction in organizations
In hierarchies, the separation between layers is justified in terms of socialization of activities and maintaining focus. In other words, higher management focuses on strategy and middle management overseas the implementation of strategies at the operational layer. Thus a higher manager doesn't need to be concerned with operations, can put his mind to strategy. Hierarchy is relationally directional. Asymmetry: those at the top influence many at the bottom, not the other way around.
This section describes the structure of OVNs
Affiliation is a relationship between a particular agent and the ensemble of other agents that interact within an OVN, considered as peers, and with the shared resources, in the context of processes and ventures of the OVN, respecting a self-imposed set of norms and rules. It denotes the degree of involvement.
NOTE: In a p2p context it is not advised to reduce agents or affiliates to users, as it is used in discussions about online centralized platforms such as Facebook or Twitter. The difference is that users in that context have no control over the platform. See Difference between member and user.
- Individuals or organizations that do not take part in activities in any way, but might have access to public information about the OVN and observe it from a distance. These are individuals who have heard about THE ovn or who are susceptible to respond to information about the OVN. The unaffiliates are anonymous or unknown by affiliates of the OVN. But they can be recognized as a class/population and their general characteristics can be revealed by a survey and statistical analysis.
- Privileges and permissions: Only have access to public information through the OVN's website and social media channels.
- Obligations: OVN* Integration process: Anyone out there is a unafiliated
- Individuals or organizations that have not contributed to the OVN's ventures in a tangible way, or their contributions are not concrete enough to be taken into consideration by the value accounting system, or have contributed but do not want to be involved directly. If the individual or organization records a contribution in the value accounting system he/she/it becomes an active affiliate (see below). Close affiliates follow the OVN's activities regularly for different reasons and are recognized by active affiliates (see below) within the OVN. They are close affiliates, i.e. are known by some affiliates, they are not anonymous.
- Privileges and permissions: Can have access to the OVN's database, to the OVN’s main communications channels, and to some activities like meetings and presentations.
- Responsibilities and obligations: Respect the OVN’s assets and its affiliates.
- Integration process: Anyone can become a close affiliate, or an observer. The individual or the organization must only talk to at least one affiliate or active acvite of the OVN. The entire the OVN's community must be informed of new close affiliate. To becomes a close affiliate one needs to contact the community or one of its affiliates. The close affiliate can also follow activities on wiki, and social media.
active affiliate Anyone who contributes to the OVN in a tangible way to increase the market value of products designed and manufactured by the OVN or to help sustain and improve the OVN's community, its image, its infrastructure, etc., AND is recognized by the OVN's affiliates for being able to do so can become an active affiliate. More formally, active affiliates are individuals or organizations that are contributing to the OVN in a meaningful way, defined by a network-wide decision or by a governance equation. This requires logging of contributions in the value accounting system and documenting work.
- Permissions: Have access to the OVN’s infrastructure (physical and virtual) by the nondominium and the custodian agreement, to the OVN’s production and distribution assets, to governance and decision making.
- Responsibilities and obligations: Active affiliates need to adhere to the principles behind the value accounting system. They must agree with the affiliation conditions.
- Integration process: To become an active affiliate contact the community or one of its affiliates. All active affiliates have a profile and are listed here (the members registry). You only become an active affiliate based on the conditions above.
- Individuals or organizations that have already contributed to the OVN in the past (meaning that their contributions have been recorded in the OVN’s contribution accounting system), but have become inactive, or that have expressed their willingness to contribute to the OVN's ventures but have not contributed with anything meaningful/tangible yet. Inactive affiliates have more potential for value creation for the network than close affiliates, in that they have been or will be involved in some value creating activities, and maintain strong relations with active affiliates.
- Privileges and permissions: Have access to nonpublic information about the OVN. Can participate in some activities like meetings and presentations. Have access to some or all the OVN's communication systems. Participate in decision making.
- Responsibilities and obligations: Respect the OVN’s assets and affiliates.
- Integration process: To become an affiliate one needs to contact the community or one of its members. All affiliates have a profile and are listed here.
Becoming an active affiliate within the an OVN formally consists of a mutual and explicit agreement to the principles, guidelines and rules of the OVN. These can be considered a "Terms of Participation" (ToP) of the commons of the OVN. This Terms of Participation currently consists of:
- reading and acknowledging the Affiliate Handbook - see Sensorica's handbook
- reading and acknowledging the Nondominium & Custodian agreement - see Sensorica's template
- signing the "Acknowledgement of (knowledge) commons" agreement for contributions
- signing the Value Equation Agreement - see Sensorica's template
Prospective affiliates will be invited to:
- engage in conversation with multiple active affiliates, collaborate with other active affiliates to provide background information, work samples, written documentation
- review the public knowledge base(s) about the OVN
- fill out a request to join the OVN as an affiliate
- create an affiliate profile page
Since Sensorica’s inception in early 2011, we have observed different types of involvement and contributions, which can help us define different types of affiliation. On passive involvement Some individuals that are on our mailing list and have access to our private database (most of them only View access) have been very passive. It is hard to know if they actually follow us regularly and if they absorb information (todo: do a survey). It is also hard to know if they propagate this information through their social networks. In fact, it is hard to know what they do with the information they absorb. On negative involvement We have NOT observed yet any deliberate destructive action of tangible property.
In the spring of 2014 Sensorica had a first crisis around the use of brand and around its core values and principles. Bob created this document to help the community analyse this crisis and learn from it. In the summer of 2014 Sensorica went through a second crisis around the question of sustaining the commons. Tibi created this document to help the community create new norms and rules. Some individuals engaged in negative publicity about Sensorica. Involvement and time
- Intense: almost daily contributions, very committed
- Availability driven: contributions are sporadic, based on availabilities
- Interest driven: almost certain of a response if the right topic arises (Ex. Kurt, whenever there is an issue about value systems, governance,...)
- Unpredictable: difficult to know when and why a network affiliate makes a contribution
- propose others...
See Venture page
See Project page.
Relative to NRP-CAS
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